COST FP1101  Outcomes


State of the Art Report on the Use of NDT/SDT for the assessment of structural timber members on site.
Report made by Working 1 – Task Group 2.
This state of the art report has been prepared by the Working Group 1/Task Group 2: “Combination of NDT/SDT for the assessment of timber structures on site”. The present report is divided in four broad themes that describe some of the achievements and reflections among research groups in the last decades in several topics related to the scope of TG2 :
• Part I includes general matters related to the use of NDT/SDT methods such as calibration, reliability of field measurements, statistical approaches to derive properties, as well as to update and combine information from different sources;
• Part II includes the application of NDT/SDT methods for predicting the socalled reference properties and also specific methods aimed at determining other mechanical/physical properties whose estimation is important for the assessment of particular problems associated to timber members;
• Part III deals with issues fundamental to the evaluation of the nature, extent and causes of local features that can induce failures, damage and vulnerabilities (e.g. aging, mechanical damage, delamination, fissures and biological deterioration);
• Part IV includes a group of chapters highlighting the application of NDT/SDT methods in specific contexts.

PART I – ENHANCEMENT OF NDT/SDT INFORMATION THROUGH STATISTICAL/PROBABILISTIC MODELS:

PART II – ASSESSMENT OF REFERENCE PROPERTIES:

PART III – ASSESSMENT OF THE INTEGRITY OF STRUCTURAL TIMBER MEMBERS

PART IV – CASE STUDIES





State of the Art Report on the Reinforcement of Timber Structures.
Report made by Working Group 2

The main aim of the report is to summarise the current and emerging methods that are available to repair or enhance the structural performance of timber structures and to provide guidance to the use of these methods. The report is organised in two main parts. In Part I, the different structural elements and subsystems that make up our buildings are considered. These include beams, floors, columns, shear walls and connections. The possible failure modes are described and the appropriate reinforcement strategies for each case are presented, including consideration of cultural heritage issues. The reinforcement of buildings to increase their resistance to seismic actions is also included in this part. The focus of Part II is on reinforcement materials and methods. These include adhesive systems, mechanical fasteners such as glued-in rods and self-tapping screws, fibre reinforced polymer laminates and bars, and emerging nano-structured materials. The properties of these materials, their methods of application and relevant design rules are described. The report provides details not only of the latest research findings related to the reinforcement of timber structures, but most importantly how these methods can be best used in practice. Many examples are given of the implementation of the various reinforcement methods. Because of this, the report will be of interest not only to the research community, relevant standardisation bodies, and policy makers but also to practitioners, representatives of the timber construction industry and product developers in the sector of reinforcement technologies.

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  • Reinforcement of Timber Structures. A state-of-the-art report
  • Publisher : Shaker Verlag, Aachen ISBN: 978-3-8440-3751-7, 234 pp
  • Editors: A.M. Harte & P. Dietsch

INTRODUCTION: Annette M. Harte, Philipp Dietsch.

PART I – REINFORCEMENT APPLICATIONS
  • Reinforcement of timber beams. Steffen Franke, Bettina Franke, Annette M. Harte 
  • Reversible timber-to-timber strengthening interventions on wooden floors. Alessandra Gubana
  • Reinforcement of timber columns and shear walls. Wen-Shao Chang
  • Analysis and strengthening of carpentry joints. Jorge M. Branco, Thierry Descamps
  • Reinforcement of dowel type connections. Laurent Bléron, Damien Lathuillière, Thierry Descamps, Jean-François Bocquet 
  • Seismic Strengthening of Timber Structures. Maria Adelaide Parisi, Maurizio Piazza

PART II – REINFORCEMENT METHODS
  • Adhesives for on-site bonding: characteristics, testing and prospects. Benedetto Pizzo, Dave Smedley
  • Glued-in rods. René Steiger, Erik Serrano, Mislav Stepinac, Vlatka Rajčić, Caoimhe O’Neill, Daniel McPolin, Robert Widmann
  • Reinforcement with self-tapping screws. Philipp Dietsch, Reinhard Brandner
  • FRP reinforcement of timber structures. Kay-Uwe Schober, Annette M. Harte, Robert Kliger, Robert Jockwer, Qingfeng Xu, Jian-Fei Chen
  • Nanotechnologies for reinforcement and protection of timber structures: innovative nano-coatings. Tanja Marzi

OUTLOOK - Philipp Dietsch, Annette M. Harte.

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  • Editorial. Annette M. Harte, Keith Crews.
  • Failure modes a
  • nd reinforcement techniques for timber beams - state of the art. Steffen Franke, Bettina Franke, Annette M. Harte.
  • Repair and reinforcement of timber columns and shear walls - A review.  Wen-Shao Chang
  • State-of-the-Art Report on High Reversible Timber to Timber Strengthening Interventions on Wooden Floors. Alessandra Gubana.
  • Analysis and strengthening of carpentry joints. Jorge M. Branco, Thierry Descamps
  • Reinforcement of dowel type connections. Laurent Bléron, Damien Lathuillière, Thierry Descamps, Jean-François Bocquet.
  • Seismic Strengthening and Seismic Improvement of Timber Structures. Maria Adelaide Parisi, Maurizio Piazza.
  • Adhesives for on-site bonding: characteristics, testing and prospects. Benedetto Pizzo, Dave Smedley.
  • Self-tapping screws and threaded rods as reinforcement for structural timber elements - a state-of-the-art report.Philipp Dietsch, Reinhard Brandner.
  • Strengthening of timber structures with glued-in rods. René Steiger, Erik Serrano, Mislav Stepinac, Vlatka Rajčić, Caoimhe O’Neill, Daniel McPolin, Robert Widmann.
  • FRP reinforcement of timber structures. Kay-Uwe Schober, Annette M. Harte, Robert Kliger, Robert Jockwer, Qingfeng Xu, Jian-Fei Chen.
  • Nanostructured materials for protection and reinforcement of timber structures: a review and future challenges. Tanja Marzi.


TimberSave is a tool that has been developed to provide designers with a range of reinforcement solutions for particular problems and which evaluates these solutions based on defined criteria. It has been developed for timber roof structures but it can be expanded to include all timber structural components and systems.

Contact: Annette Harte, NUI Galway, Ireland: annette.harte@nuigalway.ie

  • STEP 1 : To identify the type of roof with an “on-click” gallery of images
  • STEP 2 : To choose the deterioration causes
  • STEP 3 : To fill the case-specific information for the member/joint, linked to WG1 assessment  template 
  • STEP 4 : The solutions for reinforcement are pared based on 3 categories: Lower Carbón Cost, Lowest Economic Cost and Architectural Best Practice. The results ensure the solution recommendations favor whichever is deemed the most significant category for that project.



   Dowload: Video demonstration.


State of the Art Report on the Monitoring of Timber Structures.
Report made by Working Group 3. 
Timber structures have been in use for centuries, with proven durability. In recent years, timber has become particularly important, due to its standing as a truly renewable material for construction and carbon storage purposes. Monitoring is an important tool which can assure the durability of timber structures and optimization of maintenance. The field of WG3 shows the activities within monitoring of timber structures, predominately from a European perspective. WG 3 represents a multidisciplinary approach considering expert knowledge from timber engineering, material science, non-destructive testing, sensor development, and monitoring. This is collected in the set of articles compiled in the special issue.

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  • Monitoring of timber structures. Jochen H. Kurz. Page 97. 
  • Some background of monitoring and NDT also useful for timber structures. Jochen H. Kurz, Christian Boller. Pages 99-106.
  • Monitoring of historical timber structures: state of the art and prospective. Alberto Cavalli, Marco Togni Pages. 107-113.
  • Methods to determine wood moisture content and their applicability in monitoring concepts. Philipp Dietsch, Steffen Franke, Bettina Franke, Andreas Gamper, Stefan Winter. Pages 115-127.
  • Performance of X-Lam panels in a sports center with an indoor swimming-pool. Luís Jorge, Alfredo Dias, Ricardo Costa. Pages 129-139. 
  • Use of digital image processing in the monitoring of deformations in building structures.  Klaudius Henke, Robert Pawlowski, Peter Schregle, Stefan Winter. Pages 141-152. 
  • Monitoring building climate and timber moisture gradient in large-span timber structures. Philipp Dietsch, Andreas Gamper, Michael Merk, Stefan Winter.  Pages 153-165. 
  • Monitoring the long-term behaviour of timber structures. Francesca Lanata. Pages 167-182. 
  • Continuous monitoring of a long-span cable-stayed timber bridge. Erhan Saracoglu, Sten Bergstrand. Pages 183-194. 
  • Case studies: long-term monitoring of timber bridges. Bettina Franke, Steffen Franke, Andreas Müller. Pages 195-202. 
  • Importance of in situ experimental testing in estimation of seismic stability of structures and implementation in structural health monitoring. Lidija Krstevska, Ljubomir Tashkov. Pages 203-219. 
  • Elastic wave modes for the assessment of structural timber: ultrasonic echo for building elements and guided waves for pole and pile structures. Martin Krause, Ulrike Dackermann, Jianchun Li.  Pages 221-249